Population analysis (Pop PK/PD) is a powerful tool that enables pharmacometricians to interrogate complex PK, PD and clinical data-sets, seek explanation of inter-subject variability, and estimate the magnitude of unexplained variability in the patient population. For example, popPK analysis typically can reveal how PK parameters (e.g., CL, V, Ka) are influenced by factors of demographic, pathophysiological, environmental, or concomitant drug-related origin. These covariates can then be used to identify subsets of patients (special patient populations) that may need to be excluded from treatment or may require dose modification. Defining the optimal dosing strategy for a population, subgroup, or individual patient requires resolution of the variability, thereby leading to a surge in the use of popPK approach in new drug development and the regulatory process. Moreover, popPK analysis offers the possibility of obtaining integrated PK information not only from relatively sparse data but also from relatively dense or a combination of sparse and dense data. This is a particularly valuable tool in pediatric drug development as it can be used to analyze PK data in children with a minimal number of blood draws. In addition to popPK strategies, KinderPharm scientists also make use of computer-based algorithms to design optimized blood-draw schedules to minimize the number of samples that need to be taken from children to obtain sufficient PK knowledge of the drug.